A 1919 map of new national boundaries in Europe as proposed by the Treaty of Versailles.
One of the aims of the Treaty of Versailles was to redraw national borders throughout Europe to reflect the ideals of nationalism and sovereignty of nations, both new and long-established. This map, created by C.S. Hammond & Company, illustrates the proposed changes in red. The German Empire, Ottoman Empire, and Austro-Hungarian Empires were most affected by these changes. Russia had already ceded much territory when it pulled out of the war in 1918 with the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.