A plan of Winter Quarters, Nebraska, during the winter of 1846 to 1847.

The Mormon clerk Thomas Bullock drew this map of the Mormon town of Winter Quarters, located just north of present-day Omaha, Nebraska, probably in December 1846. The community’s layout shows the influence of Joseph Smith’s urban-design model called the Plat of Zion. Winter Quarters served as temporary headquarters for Brigham Young and many of the apostles. Mormons called their migration the “Camp of Israel,” likening themselves to Jews seeking a promised land in Israel, as as chronicled in the Bible’s book of Exodus. Since the population of Winter Quarters never exceeded four thousand, Bullock’s map suggests that more than seven thousand other westward-moving members established themselves in ninety other known communities on the east side of the Missouri River, or in a variety of temporary Mormon settlements spread across Iowa. Winter Quarters was abandoned in 1848.