A photograph of a group outside Palama Settlement in Honolulu, Hawaii, 1909.

At the turn of the twentieth century, Hawaii had a diverse population of native Hawaiians, Puerto Rican migrants, and American and European missionaries and entrepreneurs. Palama Settlement in Honolulu, Hawaii was founded in 1896 and by the early 1900s was offering many of the same services offered by settlement houses in major American cities, including public health training, childcare, and American history and civics classes. Hawaii was not yet a state but had been annexed as a territory of the United States.