A map showing the distribution of the population of enslaved people in the United States, 1861.
This map plots the percentage of enslaved people by county for the southern states based on census data from 1860. The darker counties have higher percentages of enslaved people within the overall population. The map also includes a chart at the bottom with data from the 1860 census that lists free and enslaved populations for each of the southern states. This map was sold during the Civil War and was one the first statistical or thematic maps published in the United States. Although not explicitly acknowledged on the map, it was produced by the US Coast Survey.