• Personal justice denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Part Two: Recommendations (excerpt). 1982. Courtesy of Purdue University via HathiTrust.

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    Personal justice denied : report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Part Two: Recommendations. (excerpt)
    • Date
    • 1983
    • Creator
    • United States. Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.
    • Description
    • Item 1089. S/N 052-003-00897-1. Part 2: Recommendations. December 1982. Includes bibliographical references and index.
    • Rights
    • Public domain. Learn more at http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use
    • Partner
    • HathiTrust
    • Contributing Institution
    • Purdue University.

  • Legislation to implement the recommendations of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, 1988. Courtesy of Penn State University via HathiTrust.

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    Legislation to implement the recommendations of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians
    • Date
    • 1988
    • Creator
    • United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations.
    • Description
    • Item 1020-A, 1020-B (microfiche). Serial no. 19. Shipping list no.: 88-60-P. Distributed to some depository libraries in microfiche. Bibliography: p. 182-183.
    • Rights
    • Public domain. Learn more at http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use
    • Partner
    • HathiTrust
    • Contributing Institution
    • Penn State University.

  • Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Courtesy of Utah State University - Merrill-Cazier Library via Mountain West Digital Library.

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    Civil Liberties Act of 1988
    • Date
    • 1943-05
    • Creator
    • United States. War Relocation Authority
    • Description
    • Public Law 100-383, called the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, acknowledged "the fundamental injustice of the evacuation, relocation, and internment" of people of Japanese ancestry during World World II.
    • Rights
    • This is a U.S. government document and as such is freely available without restriction.
    • Partner
    • Mountain West Digital Library
    • Contributing Institution
    • Utah State University - Merrill-Cazier Library

  • Bainbridge Island Japanese American Monument Act of 2007. Courtesy of the US Government Publishing Office (GPO).

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    Bainbridge Island Japanese American Monument Act of 2007

President Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066, which began and legalized the process of Japanese internment, was unofficially rescinded in December 1944, less than a year before World War II ended. Soon after, the War Relocation Authority began a six-month resettlement process that released internees into temporary housing. By 1946, all of the camps that forcibly held Japanese Americans were closed.

What those thousands of men and women found when they returned, however, was that the lives they left were no longer available to them. Workers lost their jobs during deportation, and families had lost their homes and property to opportunists who had seized them in their absence. It would be another thirty years before the men and women who survived internment were offered any formal apology by the United States government.

During the "Redress Movement" of the 1960s and 70s, Japanese internment once again gained national attention. Thanks to the activism of many young Japanese Americans, President Gerald Ford officially rescinded Roosevelt’s Executive Order in 1976, calling internment a "national mistake."

Four years later, Congress established the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, which studied Japanese internment and held hearings across the country. Their findings, called Personal Justice Denied, described internment as  a "grave injustice" rooted in prejudice. The Civil Liberties Act in 1988 later issued $20,000 to each surviving internee as a redress for their experiences.

Today, each of the ten detention sites are now historical landmarks, where the experiences and lasting legacy of the Japanese American immigrants and citizens forcibly detained by the government are remembered and recognized.