• This 1912 physical map of New York State shows the geographic features that informed the proposed canal route. Courtesy of New York State Archives via Empire State Digital Network.

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    Physical Map of New York State
    • Date
    • 1912
    • Creator
    • New York (State). Education Dept. Division of Visual Instruction.
    • Description
    • Map of New York State showing elevations above sea level. Includes both the Adirondack and Catskill Mountain regions.
    • Rights
    • This image is provided for education and research purposes. Rights may be reserved. Responsibility for securing permissions to distribute, publish, reproduce or other use rests with the user.
    • Partner
    • Empire State Digital Network
    • Contributing Institution
    • New York State Archives

  • This relief map indicates the territories of the Six Nations or Haudenosaunee people who inhabited the geographic area that is today the State of New York. Courtesy of University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee via Recollection Wisconsin.

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    Map of Ho-de-no-sau-nee-ga : or the territories of the People of the Long House in 1720 ; exhibiting the home country of the Iroquois with the aboriginal names of their villages, lakes, rivers, streams & ancient localities, and the courses of their principal trails / by Lewis H. Morgan 1851
    • Date
    • 1901
    • Creator
    • Morgan, Lewis Henry, 1818-1881
    • Description
    • Relief shown by hachures ; Removed from ""League of the Ho-de?-no-sau-nee or Iroquois"" by Lewis H. Morgan; a new edition with additional matter, edited and annotated by Herbert M. Lloyd, New York, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1901 ; Shows Indian villages... more
      Relief shown by hachures ; Removed from ""League of the Ho-de?-no-sau-nee or Iroquois"" by Lewis H. Morgan; a new edition with additional matter, edited and annotated by Herbert M. Lloyd, New York, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1901 ; Shows Indian villages, American towns, Indian trails, territorial boundaries, falls and cold springs ; Includes pronunciation guide. Color. less
    • Rights
    • The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.
    • Partner
    • Recollection Wisconsin
    • Contributing Institution
    • University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Human migration and settlement patterns in New York State have been consistently influenced by geography. The Erie Canal, and subsequent rail lines and highways, followed the earliest migration and trade routes of the people of Six Nations (Haudenosaunee) in territory that is now the State of New York. From earliest pre-contact settlements to present day communities, most people have always lived along the "L" shaped curve, from Greenwich Village at New York Harbor up to Albany, then westward towards Syracuse and on to Buffalo at Lake Erie. The myriad rivers and lakes along this route avoid the Northeast Appalachian ranges of the Hudson Highlands, the Taconics, the Catskills or the Adirondacks.

Controlling access to the water routes in New York was a critical aspect of ongoing land and trade disputes between various native and European groups from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries: between the Haudenosaunee and the Algonquin peoples; the French and the British; the Americans and the British. Continuing through the War of 1812, conflicts centered on controlling the use of major waterways, from the Atlantic Ocean at the port of New York to the Great Lakes at Buffalo Harbor and Irondequoit Bay.