• "Franklin D. Roosevelt, Henry Wallace, and Robert Fechner in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia," 1933. Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.

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    Franklin D. Roosevelt, Henry Wallace, and Robert Fechner in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia
    • Creator
    • Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945.
    • Rights
    • Unrestricted.
    • Partner
    • National Archives and Records Administration
    • Contributing Institution
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

  • A letter discussing funding for the Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933. Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.

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    D. K. Major letter to Robert Fechner regarding funding for the Civilian Conservation Corps
    • Creator
    • Howe, Louis M. (Louis McHenry), 1871-1936.
    • Rights
    • Unrestricted.
    • Partner
    • National Archives and Records Administration
    • Contributing Institution
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

  • A photo of a Civilian Conservation Corps camp in Ferron, Utah, 1935. This particular CCC company worked with the Forest Service. Courtesy of the Emery County Archives via Mountain West Digital Library.

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    Civilian Conservation Corps -- Ferron -- Camp F-11 Company 959 -- Morning Ceremonies
    • Date
    • 1935
    • Creator
    • Mortensen, Orlon
    • Description
    • Orlon Mortensen took this photograph of Camp F-11 Company 959 in Ferron as part of his photography class with the CCCs. This company worked with the Forest Service. The CCCs were organized as a civilian branch of the army when the nation was in a gre... more
      Orlon Mortensen took this photograph of Camp F-11 Company 959 in Ferron as part of his photography class with the CCCs. This company worked with the Forest Service. The CCCs were organized as a civilian branch of the army when the nation was in a great economic depression and the country had extensive erosion, drought and much forest fire damage. Each company worked for a government agency. In Emery County they either worked for the Forest Service or the Department of Agriculture, Division of Grazing. President Roosevelt said, "In creating the Civilian Conservation Corps, we are killing two birds with one stone. We are clearly enhancing the value of our natural resources, and at the same time we are relieving an appreciable amount of actual distress. And we are conserving not only our natural resources, but also our human resources." Over two million young men joined the CCC in the nine years it functioned. The program saved the young men and the young men saved the country. Photographs. less
    • Rights
    • Digital image c2009 Emery County Archives. All rights reserved.
    • Partner
    • Mountain West Digital Library
    • Contributing Institution
    • Emery County (UT) Archives

  • "Map of CCC areas in the United States," from Leslie Alexander Lacy, The Soil Soldiers: The Civilian Conservation Corps in the Great Depression, page 27. By the end of 1935, there were over 2,650 camps in operation in all states. Eventually there would be camps in all states and in Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Courtesy of the Illinois State Library via University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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    Map of CCC areas in the United States
    • Date
    • 8-18-03
    • Creator
    • Unknown
    • Description
    • Map. By the end of 1935, there were over 2,650 camps in operation in all states. Eventually there would be camps in all states and in Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. On March 9, 1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt called Congress... more
      Map. By the end of 1935, there were over 2,650 camps in operation in all states. Eventually there would be camps in all states and in Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. On March 9, 1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt called Congress into emergency session to hear and authorize his Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) Act, more popularly known as the Civilian Conservation Corps. The CCC would provide work for young, unemployed men during the Great Depression and to cope with national conservation needs. Before it was over, over three million young men had been engaged in a massive salvage operation, the most popular experiment of the New Deal. Induction of the first enrollee in the program was April 7, 1933 and by April 1934 the Corps faced the beginning of its second year with near universal approval and praise of the country. This young, inexperienced labor force had not only met but exceeded all expectations. The economy of cities and towns all across the nation felt the impact of mandatory, monthly $25.00 allotment checks to workers’ families. Local purchases averaging about $5,000 monthly staved off failure of many small businesses in communities close to the camps. The enrollees were working hard, while they improved millions of acres of federal and state lands, and parks. New roads were built, telephone lines strung and the first of millions of trees that would be planted had gone into the soil. The CCC also provided educational opportunities for the enrollees from the fundamentals of reading and writing to more advanced classes. In 1937 Congress passed legislation that formally established the Civilian Conservation Corps as they continued to try and establish the CCC as a permanent agency. World events surrounding the advent of World War II and the subsequent attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought dramatic changes to the CCC program. With the declaration of war, the National Park Service closed ended all CCC projects that did not directly relate to the war effort. The closing of the CCC camps was facilitated by the fact that many of the young men and their supervisors were taking jobs with defense industries or entering military service. Due to these events, the CCC program was terminated in 1942. American Dream; American Communities in History. 16 History; 18 Social Systems. less
    • Rights
    • For any further information related to this record, please contact the Collection Publisher. See http://images.library.uiuc.edu/projects/tdc for more information about this project. Http://images.library.uiuc.edu/projects/tdc/conditions.htm.
    • Partner
    • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    • Contributing Institution
    • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University Library

Developing a program to put 250,000 men to work was a complex organizational challenge. The bill authorizing the CCC divided the country into nine different areas. Enrollees were initially supposed to be unmarried men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three, although this requirement would change over time.

Different divisions of the Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration were charged with authority for aspects of the CCC work. Robert Fechner, a union man who had previously served as a labor advisor to Roosevelt, was selected to direct the CCC. An administrative council for the CCC was created with delegates appointed by the Secretaries of War, Labor, Interior, and Agriculture. The Army dealt with logistics such as transportation and administration of the camps for the young men, including dealing with discipline issues. Men who enrolled agreed to work for six months. Administrative work for the CCC at the federal level involved frequent disagreements between departments, for example between the Forest Service and the Army.

Criticism of the new program came from a variety of organizations. Representatives of the labor movement were concerned about the low wages for the CCC men. There was strong anti-military sentiment at the time, so the involvement of the Army was also viewed with suspicion by some. On the whole though, most people were supportive of the idea of the CCC, and the legislation authorizing the program was swiftly passed.