• The annexation of the Philippines and other overseas territories called into question just how far America's jurisdiction stretched. Author John Chetwood challenged American imperialistic practice with this 1898 pamphlet. In it he argues: "In the scales with the Monroe Doctrine lie our national honor and our national credit. Will the people of the United States exchange this for Manila?" Courtesy of Library of Congress via HathiTrust.

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    Manila, or Monroe doctrine? /
    • Date
    • [c1898]
    • Creator
    • Chetwood, John, 1859-.
    • Description
    • Includes bibliographical references.
    • Rights
    • Public domain. Learn more at http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use
    • Partner
    • HathiTrust
    • Contributing Institution
    • Library of Congress.

  • The Philippine-American War was hardly a "skirmish," as this illustration of American soldiers suggests. By the war's end, 4,200 Americans and 20,000 Filipino soldiers lay dead, in addition to 100,000 Filipino civilians. Courtesy of New York Public Library.

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    A skirmish [in] the Philippines
    • Date
    • 1899
    • Standardized Rights Statement
    • http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/UND/1.0/
    • Partner
    • The New York Public Library
    • Contributing Institution
    • Art and Picture Collection. The New York Public Library

  • Filipino soldiers readily took up arms against their former allies once it became clear that independence was no longer a possibility. In this photo, Filipino insurgents stand ready in line. Courtesy of University of Wisconsin Digital Collections via Recollection Wisconsin.

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    Insurgent soldiers in the Philippines, 1899
    • Date
    • 1899
    • Description
    • Insurgent soldiers, Philippine Islands
    • Rights
    • U.S. National Archives.
    • Partner
    • Recollection Wisconsin
    • Contributing Institution
    • University of Wisconsin Digital Collections

  • Popular culture depicted the Philippine-American War as a matter of national honor, duty, and charity. This lithograph features a company of American soldiers, topped with the patriotic symbols of gold stars and an eagle. In the background, men march across a Philippine village. Courtesy of Tennessee State Library and Archives via Digital Library of Tennessee.

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    Good Luck to the American Soldiers in the Philippines
    • Date
    • 1901
    • Description
    • Broadside lithograph features photographs of a company of American soldiers, with the men photographed in threes and set into a large blue horseshoe design ornamented with gold stars and topped by an eagle. A central photograph shows an unidentified ... more
      Broadside lithograph features photographs of a company of American soldiers, with the men photographed in threes and set into a large blue horseshoe design ornamented with gold stars and topped by an eagle. A central photograph shows an unidentified soldier and also features a partially printed blank service form. Background features soldiers in action or marching and a Philippine village. less
    • Rights
    • While TSLA houses an item, it does not necessarily hold the copyright on the item, nor may it be able to determine if the item is still protected under current copyright law. Users are solely responsible for determining the existence of such instance... more
      While TSLA houses an item, it does not necessarily hold the copyright on the item, nor may it be able to determine if the item is still protected under current copyright law. Users are solely responsible for determining the existence of such instances and for obtaining any other permissions and paying associated fees that may be necessary for the intended use. less
    • Partner
    • Digital Library of Tennessee
    • Contributing Institution
    • Tennessee State Library and Archives

The Philippines waged a fiery, but ultimately unsuccessful, war against American imperialists.

Revolution had been brewing in the Philippines long before the Spanish-American War. In 1896, Filipino nationalists, largely organized by the militant Katipunan group, waged an armed rebellion against Spain. Emilio Aguinaldo, leader of a Katipunan faction, emerged as prominent military and political leader. The resistance even established the First Republic of the Philippines with Aguinaldo at its head. Neither Spain nor the US recognized its legitimacy. Nonetheless, during the Spanish-American War, Filipinos fought alongside the US hoping that an American alliance and victory would mean independence. Allies, however, soon became enemies.

In the Treaty of Paris, the US agreed to annex the Philippines at the cost of $20 million. Angered by the betrayal, Filipinos declared war. The Philippine-American War was a bloodier and more brutal affair than its predecessor. Where the US won in manpower and technology, Filipino rebels made up for their military deficit with tenacious guerrilla tactics. Philippine General Elwell S. Otis promised to "drive the Americans into the sea." By 1902 the US had captured Aguinaldo and devastated a majority of Filipino cities and communities. The war came to an end, and President Theodore Roosevelt pardoned the insurgents. The Philippines was now officially a US territory.