Decline and Rebirth
By the mid-twentieth century, several factors began to change the role and perception of the Canal. Shipping quickly dropped off when the new St. Lawrence Seaway, completed in 1959, allowed ocean-going vessels to travel straight to the Great Lakes. While the Erie Canal continued to carry some bulk cargos on barges, pleasure crafts began to outnumber commercial vessels. Both the Erie Canal and the national railroad system also began to face stiff competition from the postwar federal interstate highway construction program in the 1950s. Just as the Erie Canal had been built in response to national defense needs recognized in the War of 1812, the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 intended to address the logistical weaknesses of the national defense acknowledged during World War II. This eventually gave truck transportation the edge over both rail and canal alternatives.
As the 1972 Clean Water Act gained traction, recreational uses of the Canal increased exponentially and it became a magnet for tourists. With the creation of the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor, the history of the Canal became an additional and eventually primary attraction.