Joseph Caruso, Joseph Ettor, and Arturo Giovannitti

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This is a photo showing (from left to right) Joseph Caruso, Joseph Ettor, and Arturo Giovannitti. If you look closely you'll notice that the three men are handcuffed to each other. This photo was taken while they were still in custody on the charges of murder and inciting a riot. Ettor's characteristic grin can be found in almost every photo of him, including this one.


On January 29, in early evening, the militia cornered a large group of marchers at the corner of Union and Garden streets. After some pushing and shoving a shot rang out; Annie LoPizzo, a 34-year-old striker, lay dead in the street. Two important strike leaders—Arturo Giovannitti and Joseph Ettor—were arrested for murder conspiracy in her death. The two were miles away at the time of the incident. Striker Joseph Caruso was arrested in April and charged with murder. The three remained in jail without bail until their trial in the fall of 1912. 

"Joseph Caruso is held in the Lawrence jail as a principal in the murder of Anna Lopizzo who was killed during a clash between strikers and policemen. The state's claim, so far as it is known, is that Caruso aided Scuito who, it is alleged, did the actual shooting. ... The prisoners, who are charged with being accessories to the murder, were not present when Anna Lopizzo was shot. The commonwealth contended at their arraignment before Police Magistrate Mahoney, in Lawrence, February 9, that the defendants had spread ‘a propaganda of violence’. It was this propaganda, said the district attorney, which inspired the person actually guilty of the murder to fire at the police. According to the state's witnesses the shot missed its mark and killed the woman..."

From James Heaton, “Legal Aftermath of Lawrence Strike,” The Survey, July 6, 1912, 503-501.